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How to Reference in Chicago style citations | Best answer 2022

Nov 03, 2022

How to Reference in Chicago style citations

How to Cite Using Chicago Style (16th ed.): Websites - YouTube

How do you cite an essay in Chicago style?

Chicago style is a system that is used by researchers to structure their written pieces of work and references. There are many types of references. Other popular systems include the MLA format that is widely used by science writers. The other one is the Chicago style of referencing. It is widely used by history writers and other social sciences. Many other subjects use Chicago. If your teacher suggests that you use Chicago citations in turabian, then you have come to the right place. This style is used by professional researchers and scholars. Kate Turabian is an educator who created a spin off style for students to complete the assignments that need not to get professionally published. The Turabian style of referencing is the same style as Chicago. The only difference is that Turabian's manual focuses more on the design and structure of a research paper rather than a formally published piece (Flanagin, 2021, 621).

  One style, two varieties

Researchers have two options to choose from when they are ready to reference work in Chicago style. They can either choose references using "the note and bibliography" system or the "Author date" system. 

Notes and bibliography

This system uses footnotes, endnotes and bibliography. Most common to those working in history, literature and art. 

   Author- date

This system uses in -text citations and bibliography to structure Chicago citation style. Most commonly used by those working in social sciences and sciences. 

Footnotes and endnotes

Instead of Chicago in text citations, notes and bibliography uses footnotes and endnotes. A bibliography is also attached at the end of the paper. A footnote is found at the end of the page. As readers pass through a paper, they come across numbers like 1. At the footer, readers locate superscript numbers and view the reference information. 

  1. Reference information is found at the bottom page.

Endnotes are found at the end of chapter. They are similar to footnotes because they use superscript numbers like this1. It depends on whether writers will use footnotes or endnotes in their paper. 

Chicago Style Citation: Quick Guide

As discussed above, Chicago-style citations style come in two varieties:

(1) notes and bibliography

(2) author-date. If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources.

How to Reference a Website Using the Chicago Manual of Style

Most basic entry of a website consists of the author's name, page title, website title, web address and date of publication or the date accessed  (McNitt-Gray, 2020, 122). 

Notes: Author's First name last name, "title of page", title of website, month day, date of publication, web address. 

Bibliography: author's last name, first name. "Page title". Month day, date of publication. Web address. 

Example: John Smith, “Obama Inaugurated as President,” CNN, accessed February 1, 2009, http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obamainaugurated/index.html. Smith, John. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN. Accessed February 1, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obamainaugurated/index.html.

In the bibliography, the author's name should be reversed, with a comma put after the last name and periodically after the first name. Title and affiliations related to the author should be omitted. Suffix such as Roman numeral or Jr./ Sr., should be placed after the author's name, preceded with a comma.  If a page has two or more authors, list them in order as 5hey appear on the website. You should only reverse the first name. The other names are written 8n normal way. Remember to separate the author's name by a comma.

Smith, John, and Jane Doe. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN. Accessed February 1, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obama_inaugurated/index.html.

If no author is available, just begin the citation with the website owner. 

CNN. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” Accessed February 1, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obama_inaugurated/index.html.

In Chicago formatting, page title, which is then followed by a period, should be placed with quotation marks. Place period with quotation marks.  Next place, date of publication, if not available in the word " accessed" written before including the date. Remember to include the website address at the end. Conclude the citation by a period. For websites with formal titles, use descriptive phrases in the citations. 

How to reference a Journal Article Using the Chicago Manual of Style

The most basic entry for a journal article includes an author's name(s), article title, journal name, volume number, date of publication and page numbers. 

Notes: First Name Last Name of Author, “Article Title,” Journal Name Volume Number, no. of issue (Date published): Page-Range, DOI address.

Bibliography: Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Name Volume Number, no. of issue (Date Published): Page-Range. DOI address.

Example: John Smith, “Studies in Pop Rocks and Coke,” Weird Science 12, no. 3 (Spring 2009): 78-93, https://doi.org/10.1086/5422323.

Smith, John. “Studies in Pop Rocks and Coke.” Weird Science 12, no. 3 (Spring 2009): 78-93. https://doi.org/10.1086/5422323.

 In Chicago style bibliography, the first author's name should be reversed ( last name, then frist name), with a comma place after the last name and a period after the first name (or any middle name). You should not abbreviate and it should be written exactly as it is in the journal name. You should omit titles and affiliations associated with the author. A suffix i.e Roman numeral or Jr. /Sr. should appear after the author's name, followed by a comma. 

For any article written by two or more authors, list them as they appear in the journal orderly. Only the first author's name should be reversed, others are written in normal order. Remember to separate author names with a comma. 

Smith, John, and Jane Doe. “Studies in Pop Rocks and Coke.” Weird Science 12, no. 3 (Spring 2009): 78-93. https://doi.org/10.1086/5422323.

The full article title, followed by a period, should be placed within quotation marks. Place the period in the quotation marks. Traditionally, Chicago citation used headline style of capitalizing the first letter of each word in the title. The sentencing style is also acceptable. Be consistent while using any of the styles.  The article title is followed by the name of the journal, in italics. Omit any introductory articles( i.e , eg, a, an, the) from the journal's name. Journal names are given in full. You can also abbreviate journal name if you wish, except if it consists of one word. It is advisable to abbreviate journal names from scientific points of view ( eg.,Comp Tech Evol). 

Furthermore, put the year of publication in parentheses. Afterward include a colon, page numbers the article appears on and a period.  

Finally, if the article was published online, remember to include the web address. Conclude the citation with a period. 

How to Reference a Book Using the Chicago Manual of Style

Basically, an entry for a book consists of the author's name, book title, publisher city, publisher's name, the year of publication, and the page range. 

Notes:

 First Name Last Name of Author, Title of Book (Publisher City: Publisher Name, Year of Publication), page range.

Bibliography: 

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher City: Publisher Name, Year Published.

Examples: Dan Brown, The DaVinci Code (New York: Scholastic, 2004), 17-19.

Brown, Dan. The DaVinci Code. New York: Scholastic, 2004.

In the bibliography, the author's name should be reversed. A comma should be placed after the last name and a period after the first author's name. Write the name as it generally appears in the title page. Omit titles and affiliations associated with the author. Suffix such as Roman numeral or Jr./Sr. should appear after the author's name, preceded with a comma. 

In a situation where the book has two or more author's, in Chicago style of referencing, list the orders as they appear on the title page. Remember only the first author's name should be reversed. All other names are written in normal orders. Separate the names of author's by a comma. 

Example: Smith, John, Jane Doe, and Bob Anderson. The Sample Book. Pittsburgh: BibMe, 2008.

The full title of the book, including any subtitles, should be included and italicized. In a situation where the book has a subtitle, the main title should be followed by a colon. The Comte title is now followed by a period. 

The publication information can be found on the title page of the book. If not possible they may be included in the title page. List the publication city, a colon, and the publisher's name. 

You can give the publisher's name in abbreviation or in full. All the introductory articles ( eg., The a, an) including business titles (e.g., inc, Ltd.,S.A) are omitted.

"Books" are usually retained. "Press" may be omitted or retained - if used with a university name, it should be retained. The word University can be abbreviated as Univ. . The publisher is followed by a comma, and the year of publication. End citation with a period. 

Example:

Full publisher name: The Good Book Company Name in citation: Good Book

Full name: Lowell Libson, Ltd. Name in citation: Lowell Libson

Full name: University of Hawai'i Press

Name in citation: Univ. of Hawai'i Press

 

If you are citing a specific chapter from the book, include the following  information before the title of the book. 

  • The chapter name and a period in quotation.

  • Number of pages of the chapter

  • Chapter the number ( along the text "Chap". , preceding the "In" text before the book title). 

Example:

Smith, John. “The First Chapter.” In The Sample Book BibMe, 2008. 

In the notes:

  1. John Smith. “The First Chapter,” in The Sample Book (Pittsburgh: BibMe, 2008) 47-61.

When A book has a name present, it is a first edition. If you are citing a later edition of the book then you should indicate the newer edition in Chicago style. 

If the book includes a substantial new content, include the number, name edition year and the abbreviation "Ed" in the parentheses between the book title and period that follows

 If the book is a revised edition, it should be abbreviated as "Rev. Ed". and "Abridged edition" should be abbreviated as''Abr.ed". Second edition, revised and enlarged " written as "2nd Ed". The edition can be found on the title page as well as the copyright page alongside the edition date.

Smith, John. The Sample Book. 2nd ed. Pittsburgh: BibMe, 2008.

Smith, John. The Sample Book. Rev. ed. Pittsburgh: BibMe, 2008.

Finally, while creating a reference for print book, e-book, or a book on database, Chicago citation can assemble a book for you. This can be achieved by searching for “in-text citations Chicago” in Google. Remember that this kind of version use footnotes and endnotes, not the parenthetical references in the texts. 

                                                               References

Flanagin, Annette, Tracy Frey, Stacy L. Christiansen, and AMA Manual of Style Committee. "Updated guidance on the reporting of race and ethnicity in medical and science journals." Jama 326, no. 7 (2021): 621-627.

McNitt-Gray, Michael, S. Napel, A. Jaggi, S. A. Mattonen, L. Hadjiiski, M. Muzi, D. Goldgof et al. "Standardization in quantitative imaging: a multicenter comparison of radiomic features from different software packages on digital reference objects and patient data sets." Tomography 6, no. 2 (2020): 118-128.

Montgomery, Scott L. The Chicago guide to communicating science. University of Chicago Press, 2017.

 

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